Sunday, January 21, 2007

Dr. _______'s Reply

Dear Ms. Gans,

I have read your blog, and I remain unconvinced. The conflict is only over "land" if you accept the Arab point of view, that it is ALL the land; or as they put it, "every inch of Muslim soil" must be clean of Jews, or, at least, not under Jewish sovereignty. You are disingenuous when you print maps starting in 1946, ignoring the map of Mandatory Palestine given to Britain in 1917, and of which 2/3 was given by Britain to Abdullah to form his Arab country he chose to call Trans-Jordan, but which was, and is comprised of a population which is 78% Palestinian. You are disingenuous when you print maps of 1949, and 2000, without clearly stating that the reason for the shrinking "Palestinian" land is because the Arabs launched war after war against the Jewish state, with the aim of "pushing the Jews into the sea" (see : The Palestinian National Covenant, and G.A. Nasser); and they lost the wars; and they lost land. Should repeated aggression in an effort to "get it all" remain without consequences? It is their rejection of a Jewish state in the area, within any borders, that is the cause of the occupation, not the frustrated desire for a Palestinian state. They could have had that in 1948, 1967, 2000, and many times in between. The land that you demand that Israel return was under Arab control before 1967. That did not prevent war then? Why should anyone believe that it would prevent further fighting after they got back whatever? One needs only look at the string of broken promises to find grounds for pessimism. The latest example would be the "ceasefire" that Hamas and Fatah signed with Israel last November for Gaza. Since that "ceasefire" more than 90 rockets have been fird into Israel, (without an Israeli response, I would add.) After the 1948 ceasefire, the Arabs agreed to a U.N. guarantee that Jews would have access to their holy sites, particularly in eastern Jerusalem. The Arabs reneged, and the U.N. turned a blind eye for 19 years. Why would you think this would not happen again if Israel allowed its holy city to be divided again?

What, historically, or legally makes the land in dispute "Palestinian"? There has never existed a country called Palestine. The only time in history that the land under dispute was governed as a state by the people inhabitting it was when it was the biblical Jewish state, under Jewish governance. From the 19th Century, until Israel gained its independence, when the world spoke of "Palestinians", it was referring to the Jews of the province or mandate of Palestine. Morally, ethically, the land should be shared. Those who lived there, farmed there, under foreign sovereignty for the last 2000 years should have some claim. But so do the Jews.

I am surprised that you have never met a Palestinian that was anti-Jewish. How many Palestinians have you met? Because in the copious copies of documented information below, you will read of reams of hateful speech by and to Palestinians, and teachings to radicalize children in western supported UNRWA schools.

Israel is in an existential battle. As goes Israel, so go the remaining Jews of the world. The Arabs know it. The anti-Semites know it. And you know it. Many Jews know it as well, and that is why they publically support the democratically elected government of Israel in its policies. Within Israel, and within Jewish communities in the diaspora, there is much disagreement and discussion. But the government represents the will of the electorate; and thus is deserving of our support. When outside governments choose to criticize only Israeli policies, it is with the aim of deligitimizing the only Jewish state on the face of the earth. That is what makes such unique criticism anti-Semitic.

One of the most meaningful gauges of the integrity of a peace process and its likelihood for success is the degree to which the "peace partners" educate towards peace. It is for this reason that the entire Palestinian Authority (PA) education apparatus, both formal and informal, has been such a dismal disappointment. Instead of seizing the opportunity to educate the future generations to live with Israel in peace, the PA has done everything in its power to teach hatred to young minds.

Making matters worse, the Palestinian Authority has been spreading two clever lies about the schoolbooks that have succeeded in deflecting international pressure for change. This week, at a meeting in Jordan, Nebil Shaath answered Foreign Minister Silvan Shalom's complaint about the schoolbooks saying that the PA has "spent five years" rewriting the books, implying that they are now proper. Then he added, that Israel used the same old Jordanian books for educating the local Arab population "for 30 years", and therefore has no valid complaint to the PA. Many European governments, and many Israelis, have come to the PA's defense, citing these and other arguments.

The truth about the PA schoolbooks is first, that both new and old are far from proper - both include anti-Semitism, de-legitimize Israel's existence and incite to hatred and violence. In the new 6th grade book "Reading the Koran", anti-Semitism is presented openly, as children read about Allah's warning to the Jews that because of their evil Allah will kill them: "...Oh you who are Jews ...long for death if you are truthful... for the death from which you flee, that will surely overtake you ..."In other sections they learn of Jews being expelled from their homes by Allah, and in another Jews are said to be like donkeys: "Those [Jews] who were charged with the Torah, but did not observe it, are like a donkey carrying books..." [Reading the Koran, grade 6. p.20, 23, 78]. This religious based anti-Semitism is the most dangerous, as children are taught that hating Jews is God's choice. And while Islam is not being critiqued, it is very grave that although Islam has positive traditions regarding Jews, the PA educators chose to incorporate only hateful religious traditions.

The new PA schoolbooks that Shaath was so positive about, also teach that Israel has no right to exist, de-legitimizing Israel as a foreign occupier, compared to colonial Britain: "Colonialism: Palestine faced the British occupation after the First World War in 1917, and the Israeli occupation in 1948 ."[National Education, sixth grade, p. 16].
Since all of Israel is said to be an "occupation", all of Israel's cities, regions and natural resources are presented as being part of "Palestine". For example:
"Among the famous rocks of southern Palestine are the rocks of Beersheba and the Negev" and "Palestine's Water Sources - ... The most important is the Sea of Galilee." [Our Beautiful Language, grade 6, Part A, p. 64, National Education, sixth grade, p. 9-10]

The Negev, Beersheba and the Sea of Galilee are in Israel and do not border the disputed territories of Judea and Samaria. Yet PA children are taught these are "Palestine". Continuing this ideology a book is citing dedicated to "...Palestinians, so that they would remember their stolen homeland and work for its salvation..."[Our Beautiful Language, sixth grade, Part A, p. 112] and it is referring, not to the disputed territories, but Israel pre 1967.

Educating not to recognize Israel's existence is cemented through tens of maps in the schoolbooks in which "Palestine" encompass all of Israel. Israel does not exist on any map, within any borders. The PA defense of their schoolbook map, that since there are no final borders the map is not portraying modern "Palestine" but "Mandatory Palestine", is an insult to our intelligence. Are we expected to believe that when Palestinian children see the map called "Palestine" in all their schoolbooks they imagine Britain a half a century ago? And when Beersheba is called Palestine, the children are picturing Biblical history?

Another new book teaches what must be done for "occupied Palestine" and the "stolen homeland": "Islam encourages this [love of homeland] and established the defense of it as an obligatory commandment for every Muslim if even a centimeter of his land is stolen. "I, a Palestinian Muslim, love my country Palestine..." [Islamic Education, sixth grade, Part A, p. 68]

The complete and total message Palestinian children are taught is that Jews, according to Allah, are like donkeys; Israel is a colonial occupier who stole their land; the cities, lakes and deserts of Israel are "occupied Palestine"; and they, the children, have an obligation to liberate it "even if a centimeter is stolen".

All the above messages are found in new schoolbooks written and published by the PA since 2000. The first claim that new PA books are "proper" is flagrantly untrue. However, the majority of the books still in use by the PA schools are books they republish under the symbol of their own Ministry of Education, that were written by Jordan. These books include the following hate promotion:
"One must beware of the Jews, for they are treacherous and disloyal."
[Islamic Education for Ninth Grade p. 79, these and below from CMIP report]
"I learn from this lesson: I believe that the Jews are the enemies of the Prophets and the believers."[Islamic Education, Part Two, for Fourth Grade p. 67]
"Remember: "The final and inevitable result will be the victory of the Muslims over the Jews." [Our Arabic Language for Fifth Grade p. 67]
"The clearest examples of racist belief and racial discrimination in the world are Nazism and Zionism. " [The New History of the Arabs and the World, P. 123]

The second great PA lie expressed by Shaath this week, that Israel used these same old books, is particularly resourceful, as the best lies include a grain of truth. Indeed, Israel did use Jordanian books to educate the local Arab population. However, Israel reprinted the books without the hate education. In fact, Jordan registered a complaint to the UN charging that Israel's changing the schoolbooks was a violation of international law, but the UN checked what Israel had done and approved it. The PA has put back into the old Jordanian education all the hate education that Israel had removed.

Moreover, as early as three years ago foreign governments offered money to the PA to reprint these old books without the hateful material. The PA turned down the money and refused to reprint them using a variety of arguments, the first of which was: "Don't get involved in our education - it is our Palestinian heritage." These hateful Jordanian books are republished today unedited by the PA by choice and the PA must stop passing responsibility onto others for the hate content.

Finally it should be stressed that all the books cited here were written during the most optimistic periods of the peace process, before the violence began in September 2000. They are not a reflection of the war, but were a great contributing factor to the war. The ongoing attempts to defend PA schoolbooks are tragic, as the PA is using these arguments to justify their indefensible hate education, and to refuse to improve their books. The PA is planting the seeds of the next war in their youth, and the defenders of PA hate education, including Israelis, are nurturing those seeds of war.

Educating Children to Martyrdom
The concept of educating children to become martyrs occurs regularly in PA sermons. Sheikh Ibrahim Madhi, one of the most popular Imams, is especially vocal on this issue. During one sermon, he repeats the following discussion he had with a child who approached him about becoming a suicide bomber: " A young man said to me: 'I am 14 years old, and I have four years left before I blow myself up'. We, the Muslims on this good and blessed land, are all - each one of us - seekers of Martyrdom. The Koran is very clear on this: The greatest enemies of the Islamic nation are the Jews, may Allah fight them. Blessings for whoever assaulted a soldier. Blessings for whoever has raised his sons on the education of Jihad and Martyrdom; blessings for whoever has saved a bullet in order to stick it in a Jew's head." [13] On another occasion, Madhi stated, " Shame and remorse on whoever refrained from raising his children on Jihad. Blessings to whoever waged Jihad for the sake of Allah; blessings to whoever raided for the sake of Allah; blessings to whoever put a belt of explosives on his body or on his sons' and plunged into the midst of the Jews, crying 'Allahu Akbar, praise to Allah, There is no God but Allah and Muhammad is His messenger'. Allah, show us a black day for the Jews, like the day of 'Aad and Thamud. [14] Allah, turn them into pillage for us. Allah, we strive for martyrdom for your sake..." [15]

Even if there was only one Palestinian child left, he or she would sacrifice himself for the sake of Jihad, Madhi stated in another sermon : "Even if they slaughter all of the Palestinian people and the only survivors will be one single Palestinian baby girl and one single Palestinian baby boy, the baby boy will marry the baby girl and they will give birth to the one who will liberate Jerusalem from the defilement of the Jews. While they [the Palestinians] sacrifice the last Palestinian child and the last Palestinian fetus, they [the Arab nations] will satisfy themselves with victories on the soccer courts. It was rightly claimed that a thousand verbal shells cannot compare to one shell made of iron. It was rightly claimed that what was taken by force will be regained only by the use of force. We must prepare ourselves in accordance with the religion of Allah and the Law of Allah. We must educate our children on the love of Jihad for the sake of Allah and the love of fighting for the sake of Allah." [16]

Antisemitism and Calls to Kill Jews
"Annihilating" Jews by Palestinians becoming suicide bombers and "detonating" themselves in their midst, and by saving "a bullet is order to stick it in a Jew's head," are examples of the many calls for killing Jews in Palestinian sermons. Islamic Hadiths are often cited as inspiration for such actions. Sheikh Ibrahim Madhi explained, "Palestine will be, as it was in the past, a graveyard for the invaders - just as it was a graveyard for the Tatars and to the Crusader invaders, [and for the invaders] of the old and new colonialism. A reliable Hadith [tradition] says: 'The Jews will fight you, but you will be set to rule over them.' What could be more beautiful than this tradition? 'The Jews will fight you' - that is, the Jews have begun to fight us. 'You will be set to rule over them' - Who will set the Muslim to rule over the Jew? Allah. Until the Jew hides behind the rock and the tree. But the rock and tree will say: 'Oh Muslim, oh servant of Allah, a Jew hides behind me, come and kill him.' Except for the Gharqad tree, which is the tree of the Jews. We believe in this Hadith. We are convinced also that this Hadith heralds the spread of Islam and its rule over all the land. Oh Allah, accept our martyrs in the highest heavens. Oh Allah, show the Jews a black day. Oh Allah, annihilate the Jews and their supporters. Oh Allah, raise the flag of Jihad across the land. Oh Allah, forgive our sins." [19]

Similarly, Dr. Ahmad Abu Halabiya stated, "O brother believers, the criminals, the terrorists - are the Jews. They are the ones who must be butchered and killed, as Allah the Almighty said: 'Fight them: Allah will torture them at your hands, and will humiliate them and will help you to overcome them. The Jews are like a [gas] pedal - as long as you step on it with your foot, it doesn't move, but if you lift your foot from it, it hurts you and punishes you. This is the case of the Jews." [20]

Within sermons, Jews are commonly referred to as the descendants of pigs and apes, and as calf-worshippers. As Sheikh Ibrahim Madhi stated, "All spears should be directed at the Jews, at the enemies of Allah, the nation that was cursed in Allah's book. Allah has described them as apes and pigs, the calf-worshipers, idol-worshipers. Whoever can fight them with his weapons, should go out [to the battle]; whoever can fight them with a machinegun, should go out; whoever can fight them with a sword or a knife, should go out; whoever can fight them with his hands, should go out; This is our destiny. The Jews have exposed their fangs. Nothing will deter them, except the color of their filthy people's blood; nothing will deter them except for us voluntarily detonating ourselves in their midst. They have nuclear power, but we have the power of the belief in Allah. We blow them up in Hadera, we blow them up in Tel Aviv and in Netanya." [21] On another occasion, Sheikh Madhi added: "Oh beloved of Allah. One of the Jews' evil deeds is what has come to be called 'the Holocaust,' that is, the slaughter of the Jews by Nazism. However, revisionist [historians] have proven that this crime, carried out against some of the Jews, was planned by the Jews' leaders, and was part of their policy. These are the Jews against whom we fight, oh beloved of Allah. On the other hand, [what is our belief] about the Jews? Allah has described them as donkeys." [22]

The Palestinian Authority School Books


The portrayal of Jews and Israel

Full Report in Word .Doc Format for Printing
1. Abusive terminology

A telling measure of a government's genuine interest in peace is the intensity with which it acts to replace hateful stereotypes with positive attitudes. Thus, it is disturbing that the following abusive terminology for Israelis, Jews and Israeli characteristics is being used in Palestinian Authority schoolbooks:

Jews and Israelis are:
Wild animals
Jewish aggressors
Thieving conquerors
Thieving enemy
Enemy of prophets and believers

Israel and Israeli characteristics include:

A provocation to the Arab world
A racist Jewish administration
Zionist enemy
Occupied Palestine
Israeli danger
Zionist entity
Zionist greed
Zionist occupation

The map that replaces all of Israel with:


Israeli regions cities and towns are:

"Israeli settlements in Galilee in northern Palestine"

Israel's Negev is:

"Southern Palestine"

2. The Evil Enemy
a. Overview
Palestinian Authority school children are actively taught that the Jews and Israel are the enemy in a broad range of contexts. The school texts portray the Jew as the enemy of believers, the enemy of Islam, the enemy of the Arabs, as well as generally evil and dangerous. Jews are killers and robbers and have stolen Arab land. Modern events are misrepresented to portray Israel and Jews as the evil force in their world. Zionism is equated to Nazism. Together they are depicted as the prototype examples of racism. These themes also appear regularly on PA television.

b. The Evil Enemy

a.. "Complete the following blanks spaces with the appropriate word:
The Zionist enemy - - [attacked] - - civilians with its aircraft.
[Our Arabic Language, Part II for Third Grade #523, p..9]

a.. "Why do the Jews hate Muslim unity and want to cause division among them? Give an example of the evil attempts of the Jews, from events happening today."
[Islamic Education for Seventh Grade #745, p. 19]

a.. "The Jews ... have killed and evicted Muslim and Christian inhabitants of Palestine, whose inhabitants are still suffering oppression and persecution under racist Jewish administration."
[Islamic Education for Ninth Grade #589, p. 182]

a.. "Who is the thief who has torn our homeland?"
[Our Arabic Language for Sixth Grade Part I, #553, p. 15]

a.. "Write in your exercise book: An event showing the fanaticism of the Jews in Palestine against Muslims or Christians."
[Islamic Education for Ninth Grade #589, p. 182]

a.. "One must beware of the Jews, for they are treacherous and disloyal."
[Islamic Education for Ninth Grade #589, p. 79]

A section on Zionism is entitled:

a.. "Zionist Greed."
['Modern Arab History and Contemporary Problems, Part II, for Tenth Grade #613, p. 49].

Even racism is defined through the Jews, while Nazism and Zionism are equated:

a.. "Racism: Mankind has suffered from this evil both in ancient as well as in modern times, for, indeed, Satan has, in the eyes of many people, made their evil actions appear beautiful... Such a people are the Jews..."
[Islamic Education for Eighth Grade #576, p. 95]

a.. "The clearest examples of racist belief and racial discrimination in the world are Nazism and Zionism."
[Modern Arab History for Twelfth Grade, Part I #648, p. 123]

a.. "Understanding the racist and aggressive character of the Zionist Movement. Summary of the similarity between Nazism, Fascism and Zionism."
[Modern Arab History for Twelfth Grade, Part I #648, p. 92]

c. Islamic Sources used to Create Stereotype

At times, the offensive portrayal is based on Islamic sources. The children are taught to apply the traditional narratives to hateful teachings regarding Jews and Israelis today. Five examples:

a.. "I learn from this lesson: I believe that the Jews are the enemies of the Prophets and the believers."
[Islamic Education, Part II, for Fourth Grade #531, p.67]

a.. "From the Uhud expedition... a number of lessons can be learned...: Treachery and disloyalty are character traits of the Jews and therefore one should beware of them."
[Islamic Education for Ninth Grade #589, p. 87]

a.. "The Jews adopted a position of hostility and deception towards the new religion. They called Muhammad a liar and denied him, they fought against his religion in all ways and by all means, a war that even today has not yet ended , and they conspired with the hypocrites and the idolaters against him and they are still behaving in the same way..."
[Islamic Education for Seventh Grade #745, p. 125]

a.. "In many cases these Jews acted according to their known cunning and deceit, and they incited wars [between Arab tribes]..."
[Islamic Education for Ninth Grade #589, p. 78]

a.. "Lessons to be learned: One must beware of civil war, which the Jews try to incite, and of their scheming against the Muslims."
[Ibid. #589, p. 94]

d. Misrepresentation of modern events

Modern events are misrepresented to portray Israel as active in an ongoing attack against Islam and the Arabs. Two examples: In 1969 an Australian [non-Jew] set the al-Aqsa Mosque in Jerusalem on fire. Yet, the children are taught that Israel is responsible.

a.. "This arson is a further chapter in the Zionist plot, whose aim is to take control of this Islamic holy place, the Dome of the Rock and the whole area of the Jerusalem sanctuary and to destroy all that is holy to Islam."
[Reader and Literary Texts for Eighth Grade #578, p. 97]

The Zionist movement has never called for the expulsion of Israel's Arab citizens. Yet the books teach that Zionism calls for this "expulsion":

a.. "Zionism is a political, aggressive and colonialist movement, which calls for the Judaisation of Palestine by the expulsion of its Arab inhabitants ...
[Modern Arab History and Contemporary Problems, Part Two, for Tenth Grade #613, p. 49]

3. Denial of Legitimacy
a. Overview
The Palestinian Authority school books have erased Jews from all contexts in Israel that are not negative and have even fabricated viciously racist statements, attributing them to Jewish sources.

PA books describe Muslim and Christian religious, historical, and archeological sites but omit any reference to Jewish sites. Tourists who visit are Christian and Muslim but there is no mention of the Jewish tourists. The Western Wall of the Temple is called "al-Buraq Wall" but there is no mention of its Jewish history.

A history book describes World War II, Hitler and Nazi racism while ignoring the Jews and the Holocaust.

World History on Modern Times for Eighth Grade #586, pp. 34-45]

b. Fabrication of racist "Talmudic quote"

"It is mentioned in the Talmud: "We [the Jews] are God's people on earth...[God] forced upon the human animal and upon all the nations and the races that they serve us, and He spread us through the world to ride on them and hold their reigns. We must marry our beautiful daughters to kings, ministers and lords and enter our sons into the various religions, thus, we will have the final word in managing the countries. We should cheat them and foment quarrels among them, so that they fight each other... Non Jews are pigs whom God created in the shape of man in order that they be fit for the service of the Jews, and God created the world for them [the Jews]."

[Modern Arab History for Twelfth Grade, Part I #648, p. 120]

c. Denial of Jewish nationhood

As part of the overall de-legitimization, the books deny the continuity of the Jewish nation and its place in Israel, by severing modern Jewry and modern Israel from their history in the land. The children are taught that the Jews are not a nation, but rather, a religious group:

"The Jewish Question:
Zionist thinkers suggested a number of solutions to the problem of the non- integration of the Jews in the societies in which they were living in Eastern Europe... The Jews deluded themselves that their religious faith was sufficient to turn them into one nation. Their thinkers sought to find a national homeland for the Jews, similar to other nations."

[Modern Arab History and Contemporary Problems, Part II, for Tenth Grade #613, p. 49]

d. Denial of ancient Jewish history

Thousands of years of Jewish history and traditions and 2,000 years of yearning to return to the land of Israel, are likewise brushed away with:

a.. "The Zionists turn[ed] their attention towards Palestine as the national homeland of the Jews, while relying on false historical and religious claims."
[Modern Arab History and Contemporary Problems, Part II, for Tenth Grade #613, p. 50]

e. Denial of modern Jewish history

The establishment of the state of Israel is portrayed not as the authentic Jewish national movement but as a colonialist anti-Arab plot to split the Arab world. Though similar to imperialism, the chart below shows that it is far worse:

a.. "The colonial powers regarded the Zionist Movement as the means for the attainment of their greedy colonial aspirations and saw Palestine as the base for the setting up of a Jewish state, thus tearing the Arab Homeland asunder and imposing their rule on it in order to exploit its natural resources. The European colonial powers spread the idea of Zionism among the Jews...."
[Modern Arab History and Contemporary Problems, Part II, for Tenth Grade #613, p. 48]

a.. "The difference between Zionism and Imperialism:"
Zionism Imperialism
Zionism is not linked to land or country Colonies are an extension of the motherland
A tool for establishing a non-existent State A tool and means for serving a state which exists in effect
Believes in the elimination of the original inhabitants Imperialistic behavior has not gone as far as the elimination of original inhabitants.
Settlement based on the foundation of false religious and historical rights Based on foundations of economic interests

[Modern Arab History for Twelfth Grade, Part I #648, p. 123]

Furthermore, Israel's legitimacy is denied from the first international recognition until today:

a.. "the Balfour Declaration [to establish a Jewish state- ed] is regarded as illegal..."
[Modern Arab History and Contemporary Problems, Part II, for Tenth Grade #613, p. .51]

Israel is still called:

a.. "Occupied Palestine."
[Ibid. #613, p. 95]

f. Denial of religious history

When the schoolbooks discuss sites of religious, historical, archeological and tourist interest, Muslim as well as Christian sites are included, but Jewish sites are ignored. Even the Jews' connection to the remnant of their holiest site, the Western Wall of the Temple, is denied:

a.. "The Jews claim that this is one of the places belonging to them and call it "The Western Wall", but this is not so."
[Reader and Literary Texts for Eighth Grade #578, p. 103]

a.. "Jerusalem: I have many Islamic holy places and antiquities. This is al-Aqsa Mosque and this is the Dome of the Rock...To the west of the holy mosque you can see a vast stone wall called 'al-Buraq Wall', [Western Wall of the Temple -ed] to which the angel Gabriel, peace be upon him, tied the beast of the Prophet Muhammad on the night of his journey [to heaven -ed]..."
"As for my Christian holy places - the most famous of them are 'The Church of al-Qiama' [Holy Sepulchre-ed], next to the mosque of 'Umar ibn al Khatab, and the church of 'al-Juthmana' opposite al-Isbat Gate, outside the wall."
[Palestinian National Education for Third Grade #529, p. 14]

"Questions: ...
Write down the names of the Islamic holy places in Jerusalem.
Write down the names of the Christian holy places in Jerusalem."

[ibid. #529 Page 15]

a.. "The importance of Palestine arises from the fact that Allah has chosen it to be the centre of religions. It is the place where the Nazarene, 'Jesus the son of Mary, peace be upon him, was born and it is the place to which Muhammad, prayer and peace be upon him, was made to journey... Thousands of Christians come to Palestine in order to perform their religious duties ..."
[Palestinian National Education for Fourth Grade #539, p.5]

a.. "Tourists from all over the world come to Palestine to visit its holy religious places... Muslims come to visit the first Qibla [direction of prayer] .... Christians come to visit Bethlehem, the birthplace of the Lord Messiah and the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem..."
[Ibid. #539, p. 23]

g. Creation of Palestinian history

After erasing and ignoring Jewish history in Israel, it is replaced by the creation of an ancient Palestinian history":

a.. "Dear pupil, do you know who the Palestinians are? The Palestinian people are descended from the Canaanites."
[Palestinian National Education for Fifth Grade #550, p. 19]

To create a connection to Jerusalem before it was Israel's capital, the school books teach that the inhabitants of Jerusalem before the Jews were Arabs:

a.. "Jerusalem is an ancient Arab city, built by the Jebusite Arabs before Islam... "
[Islamic Education for Eighth Grade #576, p. 50]

a.. "Jerusalem: I am an ancient city, thousands of years old. I occupy a mountain plateau in the center of Palestine... My most ancient name, Jebus, is derived from the ancient Arabs, the Jebusites."
[Palestinian National Education for Third Grade #529, p. 12]

a.. Our Master Abraham
"Abraham was a Muslim monotheist and was not from among the idolaters".
[Islamic Education for Fifth Grade #540, p143]

4. Israel must be fought through Jihad (Holy War)
a. Call to fight Israel
The calls to fight and eliminate Israel through Jihad (Holy War) and Martyrdom for Allah, appear frequently in the PA school books. In addition there is a separate recurring theme: the children are taught to fight and conquer Israel's capital, Jerusalem.

a.. "Know, my son, that Palestine is your country... that its pure soil is drenched with the blood of Martyrs... Why must we fight the Jews and drive them out of our land?"
[Our Arabic Language for Fifth Grade #542, p. 64-66]

a.. "...there will be a Jihad and our country shall be freed. This is our story with the thieving conquerors. You must know, my boy, that Palestine is your grave responsibility ..."
[Our Arabic Language for Fifth Grade #542, p. 69-70]

In the poem "Palestine" the children are taught to wage Jihad (Holy War) against Israel:

a.. "My brothers! The oppressors [Israel -ed.] have overstepped the boundary. Therefore Jihad and sacrifice are a duty.... are we to let them steal its Arab nature... Draw your sword... let us gather for war with red blood and blazing fire...Death shall call and the sword shall be crazed from much slaughter... Oh Palestine, the youth will redeem your land..."
[Reader and Literary Texts for Eighth Grade #578, p. 120-122]

The books then ask questions to emphasize the message that Israel, the enemy, is to be fought and defeated:

a.. "2. Who are the "oppressors" to whom the poet is referring in the first verse?
3. What is the road to victory over the enemy that the poet mentions?
4.The poet urges the Arabs to undertake Jihad. Indicate the verse in which he does so."
[Reader and Literary Texts for Eighth Grade #578, p. 120-122]

a.. "If you look towards the city Jerusalem, you will see the Dome of the Rock with its beautiful golden color, and you will feel you have the responsibility to free the captive Mosque and the mourning Dome from the thieving conquerors."
[Our Arabic Language, Part I, for 4th grade #532, p. 28]

The need to fight Israel, all of which is said to be on "occupied Arab land" becomes a religious imperative, with teachings like the following:

a.. "... if the enemy has conquered part of its land and those fighting for it are unable to repel the enemy, then Jihad becomes the individual religious duty of every Muslim man and woman, until the attack is successfully repulsed and the land liberated from conquest and to defend Muslim honor..."
[Islamic Education for Seventh Grade #564, p.108]

a.. "What, in your view, is the way to liberate Jerusalem, bearing in mind its liberation by the Muslims in the time of Saladin
[Reader and Literary Texts for Eighth Grade #578, p.102]

a.. "Bayonets and Torches
'...In you left hand you carried the Koran,
And in your right an Arab sword...
Without blood not even one centimeter will be liberated
Therefore, go forward crying: 'Allah is great.'"
[Ibid. #578, p. 131-133]

a.. "The poem represents a reality lived by Palestinians. Explain this."
[Ibid. #578 p. 135]

a.. "Poems to Learn by Heart":
'Oh Jerusalem'
If the thief tears our homeland
And our people driven from the land
What is left but to call to Allah ...
Who will take hold the sword, without fear of death...
Or will hold the flag at the head of great victorious army
Lead by Al-Faruk..."[ 'Umar ibn al Khatab' who conquered Jerusalem in 638.]

[Our Arabic Language, Part I for Sixth Grade #553, p. 14]

Questions on Comprehension:
Who is the thief who has torn our homeland?
What, in the poet's opinion, is the way to liberate Jerusalem?
Can Al-Faruk lead an army? Why did the poet mention him?

[Ibid. #553, p. 15]

a.. "Muslims must protect all mosques ... and must wage a Jihad both of life and property to liberate al-Aqsa Mosque from the Zionist conquest"
[Islamic Education for Seventh Grade #745, p.184]

a.. "Subject for Composition: How are we going to liberate our stolen land? Make use of the following ideas: Arab unity, genuine faith in Allah, most modern weapons and ammunition, using oil and other precious natural resources as weapons in the battle for liberation."
[Our Arabic Language for Seventh Grade, Part I #566, p. 15]

a.. "What must we do to liberate Jerusalem?"
[Reader and Literary Texts for Eighth Grade #592, p. 63]

a.. "What can we do to rescue Jerusalem and to liberate it from the thieving enemy?"
[Ibid. #592, p. 99]

a.. "Make use of the following expressions, making logical sentences:
Wise opinion the Zionist danger he called for a Jihad disaster remaining cool-headed."
[Our Arabic Language, Part I for Sixth Grade #553, p.29]

a.. "A Poem of Palestine
To Palestine greetings from Arab hearts...
Who has stubbornly and successfully resisted the chains of the enemies.
For me - the promise of Martyrdom and Palestine is my song
From Jerusalem I shall build my ladder towards eternity."
[Our Arabic Language for Second Grade, Part II #513, p.51]

a.. "The Muslim connects the holiness of al-Aqsa Mosque, and its precincts, with the holiness of the 'Sacred Mosque' and Mecca. Therefore, any aggression against one is an aggression against the other and to defend them is to defend Islam itself. Disregard of the duty in respect of them is a crime for which Allah will punish every believer in God and His Prophet."
[Islamic Education for Eighth Grade #576, p. 50]

a.. "Fill in the appropriate word from among the following: they, he, she: ______ is the commander of the Muslim forces in the capture of Jerusalem."
[Our Arabic Language for Second Grade, Part II #513 p. 42]

b. Impending victory of Islam and the Arabs over Israel and the west

The children are assured through their books that the victory of Islam and the Arabs over the Jews, Israel, the West and all religions are preordained eventualities:

a.. "Know, my son, that Palestine is your country... that its pure soil is drenched with the blood of martyrs ... Just as this sacred soil returned to its owners [in the past], so will it return again thorough your courage and determination..."
[Our Arabic Language for Fifth Grade #542, pp. 65-66]

a.. "Our brothers in Arab and Muslim countries felt the danger threatening us and joined with us in a noble Jihad... until the [Arab] Nation recruits its forces and there will be a Jihad and our country shall be freed, by Allah's will."
[Our Arabic Language for Fifth Grade #542, p.69]

a.. "Remember: The final and inevitable result will be the victory of the Muslims over the Jews."
[Our Arabic Language for Fifth Grade #542, p. 67]

a.. "This religion will defeat all other religions and it will be disseminated, by Allah's will, through the Muslim Jihad fighters."
[Islamic Education for Seventh Grade #564, p. 125]

a.. "In the present period, which exceeds all previous periods in the material and scientific advances taking place, social, psychological and medical scientists in the West are perplexed by the worrying increase in the number of people suffering from nervous disorders... and the statistics from America in this matter are a clear indication of this...
There is no escape from [the need for] a new civilization, which will arise in the wake of this material progress, and which will continue it and lift man to the highest spiritual life alongside his material advancement. Will there be such a civilisation? Is there a nation capable of fulfilling such a role? The Western world is not capable of fulfilling this role...There is only one nation capable of discharging this task and that is our nation [Islam]. No one but we can carry aloft the flag of tomorrow's civilisation... We do not claim that the collapse of Western civilization, and the transfer of the center of civilization to us [Islam] will happen in the next decade or two or even in fifty years, for the rise and fall of civilizations follow natural processes, and even when the foundations of a fortress become cracked it still appears for a long time to be at the peak of its strength. Nevertheless [Western civilization] has begun to collapse and to become a pile of debris."

Since the beginning of our reawakening... We awoke to a painful reality and oppressive imperialism and we drove it out of some of our lands and we are to drive it from the rest..."

[Some Outstanding Examples of Our Civilization for Eleventh Grade p 3, 12, 16]

5. Maps: Israel does not exist. Its place is marked - "Palestine."

The Palestinian Authority school books use a map of the Middle East in which Israel does not exist and is replaced in its entirety by a state called "Palestine".

The "New Atlas of the Arab Homeland and of the World for all the Grades" #P- GG-049-98, privately published in Nablus in the Palestinian Autonomy, is approved by the PA for use in the Palestinian Schools.

a.. Under the words "Our Country Palestine", the map shows all of Israel as Palestine
[Palestinian Social National Education for Second Grade #519, p. 21]

a.. Map entitled: "Map of Palestine before and after the war of 1967"
The Purple is defined: "The Arab lands conquered before 1967"

This expression refers to territory of the State of Israel, 1948 to 1967.

The Green is defined: "The Arab lands conquered in 1967"

This expression refers to the West Bank and the Gaza Strip.

[Modern Arab History and Contemporary Problems, Part II, for Tenth Grade #613, p. 66]

The chart in the atlas lists all the countries in the world and their capitals. It includes Palestine whose capital is Jerusalem. Israel is not included.

[Atlas of the Arab Homeland and of the World #P-GG-049-98, p99]

a.. Map entitled: Palestine, Political Map. The three areas are marked West Bank (green), Gaza Strip (green) and Occupied Palestine (yellow).
[Atlas of the Arab Homeland and of the World #P-GG-049-98, p.11]

a.. This map, which accompanies the lesson entitled "Palestine Our Homeland", encompasses all of the State of Israel and specifies numerous Israeli cities: Safed, Acre, Haifa, Tiberias, Nazareth, Bait Shean, Jaffa, Jerusalem and Beer-Sheba.
[Our Arabic Language for Fifth Grade #542, p.64]

a.. Palestine is situated at the very heart of the Arab Homeland, in the western part of the Continent of Asia, on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea."
[Palestinian National Education for Fifth Grade #550, p. 7]

a.. The following drawing shows a woman waving the Palestinian Authority flag while in the background is a map of "Palestine" in place of all of Israel.
[Palestinian National Education for First Grade #509, p. 11]

a.. Nineteen times in this book, maps mark Israel as "Palestine". [Pages 12 , 20, 23, 36, 48, 50, 53, 55, 61, 66, 72, 73, 75, 80, 81, 88, 90, 115, 124]
[Geography of the Arab Homeland for Sixth Grade #557]

a.. Maps of the Middle East in which Israel does not exist and its area is marked "Palestine" appear on the following pages: 81, 84, 88, 89,103, 107, 109, 110, 120, 122 and 124.
[Social and National Education for Fifth Grade, #549, p. 107]

6. Israeli cities are labeled Palestinian cities Israel is "occupied Palestine."
a. Overview

The entire State of Israel, its cities including its capital Jerusalem, are often treated as "Palestine", "Palestinian" or "occupied Palestine". Events that happened in Israel are often said to have occurred in "Palestine". Israeli industry, such as "the citrus fruit industry" and "oil refineries... in Haifa and Ashdod", are presented as Palestinian industry.

b. Israeli Cities are called Palestinian cities

The following Israeli cities and regions are defined as Palestinian in one or more texts:

Safed, Tiberias, Haifa, Jaffa [a part of Tel Aviv], Ashdod, Nazareth, Beer Sheba, Bet Shean, Lod, Acre, the Negev, Shaar Hagai, Jezreel Valley, the Galilee and Southern Israel. Israel's border with Lebanon is "the border of occupied Palestine."

The following are examples:

a.. "After the River Jordan flows out of the Lake of Tiberias [Galilee] ... it passes on the west the plain of Beit Shean, which leads to the 'Bani 'Amer Valley', which has the best soil in the whole of Palestine..."
[Geography of the Arab Lands for Twelfth Grade #650, p. 49]

The said valley is the Jezreel Valley in northern Israel.

a.. "Explain the following: ...
The plain of 'Bani 'Amer Valley' is the most fertile of Palestine."
[Ibid. #650, p. 55]

The said valley is the Jezreel Valley in northern Israel.

a.. "Know, my son, that Palestine is your country ... its pure soil is drenched with the blood of martyrs because it is a land of glorious battles and wars: in Jerusalem ... in Acre, in Haifa, ... in Shaar Hagay ... and in the Negev."
[Our Arabic Language for Fifth Grade #542, p.65-66]

All are Israeli cities and regions.

a.. "The Arab Homeland attracts tourism from all over the world. Some of the tourists come to visit the holy places, such as: Jerusalem, Bethlehem and Nazareth in Palestine..."
[Geography of the Arab Homeland for Sixth Grade #557, p. 79]

a.. "Map of resorts: Palestine : Haifa " [Israeli city -ed.].
[Geography of the Arab Homeland for Sixth Grade #557, p. 83]

a.. "Question: Jaffa is a Palestinian town captured by the Jews. Name three other Palestinian towns which were captured by the Jews."
[Our Arabic Language for Seventh Grade Part I #566 p.13]

Jaffa is an Israeli city- part of municipal Tel Aviv.

a.. "...There is nothing to remind us, Jaffa still exists ...and our blood is still spattered on its ancient walls while the robbers and the locusts feed off its bare fields...the road is twisting and full of obstacles and long; the faint of heart will not endure long on it. Jaffa, we shall return to you tomorrow..."
[Composition and Summarizing for Eighth Grade #581, p.20]

Jaffa is an Israeli city- part of municipal Tel Aviv.

a.. "Beautiful Jaffa
...And I said: I am enchanted by Jaffa:
How good are the companions of Jaffa
Palestine, O good mother - your daughters are all beautiful and goodly
From afar the wind has borne me to Jaffa...
And I saw Lod spread out in the midst of its wells..."
[Reader And Literary Texts for Ninth Grade Part II #592 p. 33]

Jaffa and Lod are Israeli cities.

c. Israel is "Occupied Palestine".

a.. "Following the growth in the Palestinian presence in Lebanon at the beginning of the 1970's, and its armed uprising against the Israeli occupation of Palestine, Israel acted - in collaboration with the Lebanese Phalange Party - to remove the Palestinians from Lebanon. ... Israel declared that its aim was to remove the danger of attacks of the resistance on Israeli settlements in Galilee in northern Palestine"
[Modern Arab History and Contemporary Problems, Part II, for Tenth Grade #613, p. 70]

The Galilee is Northern Israel.

a.. "There is an additional problem arising from the fact that Israel is transferring water from the River Jordan to the south of Palestine."
[Ibid. #613 p. 91]

"These forces, with Israel's help, took control of a number of Lebanese villages close to the border of occupied Palestine."

[Ibid. #613 p. 95]

The expression "These forces" refers to the South Lebanese Army.

a.. "There are migrations which take place because of the desire of the migrants to improve their economic standard of living, such as the migration to the Gulf area, and there are migrations that take place because of duress, such as that which took place from occupied Palestine."
[General Geography for Seventh Grade #569, p 60]

d. Israeli industry is presented as Palestinian industry.

The children are often taught that Israeli industry is Palestinian, as in these examples:

a.. Chart 38: Produce of Fruit Trees in the Arab Homeland: Palestine has the most citrus trees, more than Morocco and Algeria.
[Geography of the Arab Lands for Twelfth Grade #650, p. 142]

a.. Table No. 10: Oil Refineries in the Arab Homeland: "Palestine: 2 oil refineries, refining 132 thousand barrels, in Haifa and Ashdod."
[Ibid. #650 p. 186]

7. Israel's capital, Jerusalem, is called: the capital of the "State of Palestine".
The Palestinian Authority school books teach their children that an independent "State of Palestine" already exists, independence day is celebrated yearly, and Israel's capital Jerusalem, is said to be the capital of "Palestine". Some examples:

a.. "The Capital of Palestine:
Jihad asked the teacher: What is our capital?
The teacher: Jerusalem is our capital.
Jihad: Does it have other names?
The teacher: Yes. The blessed soil...
Questions: What is our capital?
Write [a composition on]: Jerusalem Our Capital."

[Palestinian National Education for First Grade #509, p. 63]

a.. "Exercise: Distinguish between verb and noun clauses: 'The land is our land and Jerusalem is ours.'"
[Our Arabic Language for Fifth Grade #542, p.74]

a.. "Determine what is the subject, and what is the predicate, in the following sentences:
'Jerusalem is Arab.'"
[Our Arabic Language for Fifth Grade #542, p.167]

a.. "The Proclamation of the Palestinian State: At the nineteenth gathering of the Palestinian National Council in Algiers it declared [the adoption] of a document proclaiming Palestinian independence. The following are extracts from this document: The Palestinian National Council declares in the name of Allah and the Palestinian nation the establishment of the state of Palestine on our Palestinian land whose capital is Jerusalem..."
[Palestinian National Education for Fifth Grade #550, p. 39]

a.. "The Greedy Designs of the Jews in Jerusalem"
"The Jews have clear greedy designs on Jerusalem. They believe that their state is not complete without Jerusalem as its capital, which is what they claim. The proof of this is that their Minister of Defense declared on the third day of the war of 1967, together with the Prime Minister, when both of them were standing by "al-Buraq", which they call the Western Wall: 'We have returned to you, Jerusalem, and we shall never part from you again. You are not just the capital of "Israel", but the capital of the entire Jewish People.'...

Thus do the Jews conspire, before the eyes and ears of the Arabs and the Muslims. What can we do to rescue Jerusalem and to liberate it from the thieving enemy...?

[Reader and Literary Texts for Eighth Grade #578, p. 96, 99]

8. Corrupt and Corrupting
"The previous verses have taught that the Israelites strayed from the straight path brought to them by their messenger, Moses, peace be upon him. In consequence they became corrupt and corrupting and were thus given painful punishment..."
[Islamic Education for Eighth Grade #576, p. 79]

"The Situation of the Non-believers

On the Day of Judgment the non-believers shall stand before Allah bowed down, hanging their heads, because of their unbelief and evil deeds, begging Allah to send them back to live in this world once more, so that they might believe in Him and do good deeds, now that they have seen with their own eyes the fearful Day of Judgment and the torments which Allah has prepared for them..."

[Islamic Education for Sixth Grade #551, p. 21- 22]

"Allah sent Moses to his people and sent down to them the Book of the Torah ...

However, later the Israelites rebelled against their Lord and distorted His book. They argued and corrupted the land, and Allah, therefore, threatened them with the torments of the Day of Judgment."

[Ibid. #551, p. .31- 32]

"The verses explain the attitude of the oppressors towards Islam, the religion of Allah, namely that they try to destroy it... and their actions are likened to one who wishes to extinguish the sun by blowing lightly from his weak mouth. Could he succeed in doing such a thing? He could not. This is the situation of the non-believers, for they cannot destroy Islam, no matter how hard they try... This religion will defeat all other religions and it will be disseminated, by Allah's will, through the Muslim Jihad fighters."

[Islamic Education for Seventh Grade #745, p. 125]

".. The Treaty of 'Umar... to the Christians in Jerusalem, is a wonderful example of the tolerance of the Muslims in administering the countries, in which they live side by side with those of other religions... These rights have not been contravened, except under the Crusader, colonialist and Zionist conquests. The Jews have destroyed mosques and churches and defiled the holiness of graves. They have killed the Muslim and Christian inhabitants of Palestine, whose inhabitants are still suffering oppression and persecution under racist Jewish administration.
Write in your exercise book: ...
6. An event showing the fanaticism of the Jews in Palestine against Muslims or Christians."

[Islamic Education for Ninth Grade #589, p. 181-182]

The Covenant of 'Umar

This refers to the Khalif 'Umar ibn al-Khattab who made a covenant with the inhabitants of Jerusalem under which he promised them their lives, their property and their churches and granted them religious freedom, on condition that they should pay a poll tax to the Muslims and prevent the Jews from living in the city.

[Social And National Education for Fifth Grade #549, p. 63]

III. Education to Jihad - Holy War and Martyrdom
1. Education to Jihad - Holy War
Palestinian Authority (PA) school books praise and encourage the waging of Jihad - Holy War.

a.. "Jihad for Allah is one of the greatest commandments and duties of Islam, the purpose of which is to establish Allah's rule on Earth... Jihad is not an issue of need, necessary only at certain times, rather, it is an ever-present necessity which a Muslim society must never relinquish. Its abandonment brings weakness and humiliation and invites aggression."
[Islamic Education for Twelfth Grade #641, p. 284, 139]

Islam distinguishes between several types of Jihad: Jihad where one puts ones life at risk, Jihad with one's possessions, Jihad by both oral and written word and Jihad by means of mobilizing fighters. Jihad with one's life is the highest level of Jihad:

a.. "Jihad with of one's life: This is by fighting enemies... This is the highest level of Jihad because the Jihad fighter sacrifices himself in accordance with Allah's way for the sake of his religion and to defend his nation...
[Islamic Education for Seventh Grade #564, p. 107]

The reward for Jihad:

a.. "The reward for shooting an arrow for Allah covers not only the archer, but also he, who made the arrow, as well as he who handed it to the archer..."
[Islamic Education for Twelfth Grade #641, p. 319]

a.. "The Muslim believes in Allah and His Messenger and fights a Jihad for Allah with property and his life in order to please Allah and to earn a place in paradise on the day of resurrection... "
[Islamic Education for Seventh Grade #564, p. 129]

The punishment for shirking Jihad:

a.. "These verses prove the superiority that is in Jihad for Allah's sake... and warned against evading a Jihad for Allah. ...and a warning to the Muslims not to defy His word nor refrain from Jihad..."
[Islamic Education for Seventh Grade #564, p. 124]

a.. "Islam has forbidden flight from the battle and regards this as a grave sin.
[Islamic Education for Eighth Grade #576 p. 176]

Jihad is promoted not only in books on Islamic studies, but in grammar, literature and civic studies as well:

a.. "Determine what is the subject, and what is the predicate, in the following sentences:
-The Jihad is a religious duty of every Muslim man and woman."
[Our Arabic Language for Fifth Grade #542, p. 167]

"Images from the Jihad of the Prophet and his Companions
Son: What did God's Messenger do to ensure the safety of the population?
Father: The Prophet applied himself diligently to making society in al-Medina a safe one, living in peace and he, therefore, made an agreement with the Jews ... But the Jews - as is their way - do not want people to live in peace... and conspired against the Muslims. The Muslims, however, were clever and therefore the Jews were unsuccessful in their evil schemes. The Muslims, under the leadership of the Prophet, punished them with death and banishment."

[Islamic Education for Fourth Grade #736, p. 44-45]

2. Education to Martyrdom

PA text books glorify Martyrdom as an ideal to be sought. The fortunate are those who are killed - attaining "Martyrdom".

a.. "Martyrdom is when a Muslim is killed for the sake of Allah... A person who dies thus is called a "Martyr" [Shahid]... Martyrdom for Allah is the hope of all those who believe in Allah and have trust in His promises... The Martyr rejoices in the paradise that Allah has prepared for him...
[Islamic Education for Seventh Grade #564, p. 112]

a.. "The Muslim sacrifices himself for his faith and fights a Jihad for Allah. He does not know cowardice because he understands that the time of his death is already ordained and that his dying as a Martyr on the field of battle is preferable to dying in bed... "
[Islamic Education for Eighth Grade #576, p. 176]

a.. "...Martyred Jihad fighters are the most honored people, after the Prophets..."
[Reader And Literary Texts for Tenth Grade #607, p. 103]

a.. "... competing with each other to attain Martyrdom in the battle..."
[Our Arabic Language for Fifth Grade #542, p. 193]

a.. "Martyrdom is life."
[Reader And Literary Texts for Tenth Grade #607, p. 171]

Numerous poems encourage the children to see themselves as future Jihad fighters seeking Martyrdom. Many school book poems have the word "Martyr" in their title, including the following poem which appears in at least two grammar books and which is often broadcast on PA television, read by different children. The children are instructed to learn it by heart.

a.. "Song of the Martyr
1 - I shall take my soul in my hand and hurl it into the abyss of death [in war]...
5 - Upon your life, I see my death and am marching speedily towards it
6 - Upon your life, this is the death of men and he, who seeks an honorable death - this is that death."
[Our Arabic Language for Fifth Grade #542, P. 60]

[Guide for Improving Arabic Language for Twelfth Grade #719, p. 84]

The students are instructed to learn the following poems by heart:

a.. 'My Homeland'
...The youth will not tire,
They desire to be free or to perish
We draw our water from death
And we will not be as slaves to the enemy...
Our symbol is the 'sword' and the 'pen', but not 'words'...
[Palestinian National Education for First Grade #509, p. 67- 68]

a.. "O Muslims, Muslims, Muslims, where there are truth and justice there shall we be found. Death pleases us and we refuse to be humbled. How sweet is death for Allah...."
[Islamic Education for Sixth Grade #551, p. 151]

This poem: "We Are The Youth" expresses the same sentiment:

a.. "We are the youth and tomorrow is ours...
We shall march on despite death
Onward, onward
We shall build, we shall not rely on others
We shall perish, but, we shall not be humbled..."
[Palestinian National Education for Third Grade #529, p.70]

a.. "The Martyrs of the Intifada
...They stoned with them [the stones], the wild animals of the way...
They died standing, burning with excitement...
Death attacked with raised pickaxe
Facing death, they stood erect..."
[Reader And Literary Texts for Tenth Grade #607, p. 167]

Grammar exercises likewise glorify Martyrdom:

a.. "Write five lines on the virtues of the Martyrs and their superior status."
[Our Arabic Language for Fifth Grade #542, p. 201]

The Jihad-Martyr concept is encouraged and glorified though many personal stories. The following are excerpts from a sixth grade school book entirely devoted to the glorification of war and Jihad.

a.. "The first words the young boy heard were the words "Jihad", "attack" and "conquest"...These words were constantly on his lips...'[The boy] Uqba grew up with the love of Jihad flowing through his veins and filling every fiber of his being....... For him no joy equaled that of taking part in Jihad...Nothing gave him pleasure but the sight of swords and spears shining in the hands of the fighting horsemen. Nothing was pleasing to his ear but the sound of the horses charging into battle and nothing gave him joy but the sight of the enemy lying dead on the battlefield, or defeated and fleeing for their lives...Uqba showed heroism and courage ... attacking them from his horse and hacking the enemy soldiers to pieces, coming down on them blow after blow, crushing their skulls...
[Uqba, the Conqueror of Africa for Sixth Grade #700 p. 6-7, 43, 83, 96]

IV List of Textbooks quoted

003 - The Contemporary history of the Arabs and the World
509- Palestinian National Education for First Grade
513- Our Arabic Language for Second Grade Part II
519- Palestinian National Education for Second Grade
523- Our Arabic Language, Part II, for Third Grade
529- Palestinian National Education for Third Grade
531- Islamic Education, Part II, for Fourth Grade
736- Islamic Education, for Fourth Grade
532- Our Arabic Language, Part I, for Fourth Grade
539- Palestinian National Education for Fourth Grade
540- Islamic Education for Fifth Grade
542- Our Arabic Language, for Fifth Grade
549- Social and National Education for Fifth Grade
550- Palestinian National Education for Fifth Grade
551- Islamic Education for Sixth Grade
553- Our Arabic Language, Part I, for Sixth Grade
557- Geography of the Arab Homeland, for Sixth Grade
700- Ubqa, the Conqueror of Africa for Sixth grade
564- Islamic Education for Seventh Grade
569- General Geography for Seventh Grade
566- Our Arabic Language, Part I, for Seventh Grade
745- Islamic Education, for Seventh Grade
576- Islamic Education for Eighth Grade
578- Reader and Literary Texts for Eighth Grade
581- Composition and Summarizing for Eighth Grade
586- World History of Modern Times for Eighth Grade
589- Islamic Education for Ninth Grade
592- Reader and Literary Texts Part II for Ninth Grade
607- Reader and Literary Texts for Tenth Grade
613- Modern Arab History and Contemporary Problems, Part II, Tenth Grade Some Outstanding Examples of Our Civilization, for Eleventh Grade
641- Islamic Education for the Twelfth Grade
648- Modern Arab History, Part I, for Twelfth Grade
650- Geography of the Arab Lands, for Twelfth Grade
719- Guide for Improving the Arabic Language, for Twelfth Grade
P-GG-049-98 Atlas of the Arab Homeland and the World, for all Grades.

V. The Palestinian Authority Educational System
1. Background
During the years when Israel was responsible for the administration of the West Bank and Gaza Strip [1967-1994], the school curriculum, as well as graduation certificates, were Jordanian and Egyptian. Israel removed words and sentences from these Jordanian and Egyptian textbooks that were anti- Semitic, called for Israel's destruction or for violence against Israel.

Following a complaint lodged by Jordan and Egypt in 1968 that Israel was changing curricula in contravention of the Geneva Convention, a UN investigative committee ruled in Israel's favor, i.e. that erasing terms offensive to Jews and Israel from the schoolbooks, was lawful. It recommended the introduction of a "clearing" mechanism by UNESCO, which was operated from 1969 to 1995. During this period, the Director- General of UNESCO annually published a list of Jordanian and Egyptian textbooks that he considered suitable for introduction to Palestinian schools in Israeli administered territories. This "clearing" system was suspended in October 1995 by the General Conference of UNESCO at the request of the Palestinian Authority and the Arab League.

2. Current System

In 1994 Israel and the Palestinian Authority [PA] signed the "Early Empowerment Agreement" transferring "powers and responsibilities in the sphere of education" from Israel to the PA. One of the first measures taken by the Palestinian Authority was to request authorization from Jordan and Egypt to use their textbooks and publish them under the name of the PA, until such time as they could issue their own books. Six textbooks, one for each primary school grade, were officially issued by the Palestinian Authority in 1994. All the other textbooks used in the Palestinian schools are of Jordanian or Egyptian origin.

3. The New Curriculum

Several agreements concerning education were concluded within the framework of international aid set up in December 1993 by the "Forum of donors" to assist the newly established Palestinian Authority to implement the Oslo accords. The cooperation agreement of 1994 between the Palestinian Authority and UNESCO preceded the establishment of a "Palestinian Curriculum Development Center" headed by Dr. Ibrahim Abu Lughod (the Vice-President of the University of Bir Zeit". The Center would function with the technical aid of UNESCO and the financial aid of Italy (Italian Ministry of International Cooperation, Italy Trust Fund)

The aim of this Center was to develop a unified curriculum, emphasizing the Palestinian national identity and their specific socio-economic needs. It was to take into consideration the values of democracy, human rights and peace, advocated by UNESCO and in the spirit of the Oslo Accords.

The Cairo Agreement of 1994 between Israel and the Palestinian Authority anticipated that the two parties would "ensure that their educational systems contribute to the peace between Israel and the Palestinian people".

In 1996, the "Palestinian Curriculum Development Center" published a complete plan for the "Development of the first Palestinian Curriculum for General Education" The plan declared that the new Palestinian curriculum would be introduced as of September 1999 for "preparatory" instruction (grades one to four), from September 2000, for instruction of "empowerment" (grades five to nine) and from September 2001 for "take off" (grades ten to twelve).

In 1997 Dr. Abu Lughod left the Center, which subsequently became part of the PA Minitry of Education.

In September 2000 about twenty new school textbooks were introduced, for first and for sixth grades. 4. Tables:

Table #1 - Number of Schools and Students - - 1990

West Bank Gaza Strip Total
Number of Schools 1206 305 1511
Number of Students 353,364 175,856 529,220

Table #2 - School Supervision and Responsibility - - 1990

Schools under: West Bank Gaza Strip Total
Israeli Civil
Administration 75% 50% 62%
UNWRA 12% 45% 31%
Private 12% 5% 7%

Table #3 - Number of Schools - - 1997

West Bank Gaza Strip Total
PA 946 167 1,123
UNWRA 100 161 261
Private Schools 147 11 158
Private Kindergartens 505 200 705
Total 1,698 539 2,237

Table #4 -Numbers of Teachers in Educational Frameworks 1996-1997

West Bank Gaza Strip Total
PA 12,255 4,232 16,498
UNWRA 1,410 3,535 4,945
Private Schools 2,236 174 2,410
Private Kindergartens 1,496 881 2,377
Total 17,408 8,822 26,230

Table #5 - Numbers of Students in Educational Frameworks 1996- 1997

West Bank Gaza Strip Total
Kindergarten 44,020 25,144 69,164
Elementary 397,572 258,781 656,353
High Schools 33,993 22,474 56,467
Total 474,585 306,339 781,984

Sources: Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics, Ministry of Education, Educational Statistical Yearbook 1996 - 1997.

VI. International Aid for the PA Education System
The Palestine Authority budget for 1998 is approximately $ 700 million. 40% goes for education, much of which is for salaries.
Many of the activities of the PA are supported by international aid provided by the "Donors Forum" consisting of 39 States (1) and 8 international organizations. (2)

The total aid pledged by these donors for the five-year period 1994- 1999, was $5.7 billion (3) , which was administered and supervised by the World Bank and other UN special agencies (WHO, UNESCO, UNRWA, ILO).During this period $2.7 billion were disbursed..

21 countries and 4 international organizations committed themselves specifically to educational projects for a total of $450 million of which $297 million have been spent on the construction, maintenance and restoration of schools, salaries, teacher training, grants, the Palestinian Curriculum Development Center, printing of textbooks.

A breakdown of this aid to education(4) shows that a large number of international organizations are involved. Many states channeled assistance through various governmental and non governmental organizations, such as, APHEDA, World Vision, FCD, GTZ, UNWRA, ILO, HEDCO, UNESCO, the World Bank, UNDP, CODESPA, FPSC, IEPALA, USAID, International Promotion Cultural Fund, American-Mideast Institutional Development for Educational & Training Services.

Italy, for example, has contributed to different educational projects through the following channels:

a.. PA ministry of education [capacity building in policy-formulation & management; policy analysis & formulation; Palestinian curriculum development; West Bank replacement of unstable schools & supplementary reading]

a.. PA ministry of higher education [Italy's university scholarships; training of science & mathematics teachers]

a.. UNESCO [strengthening &improving primary & basic education]

a.. World Bank [support to the Palestinian education system]


(1) Algeria, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Brunei, Canada, China, Czech Republic, Denmark, Egypt, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Jordan, Kuwait, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Qatar, Republic of Korea, Romania, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, United Kingdom, USA.

(2) Arab Fund, European Union, EU Investment Bank, International Finance Corporation, United Nations Development Program (UNDP), United Arab Emirates, World Bank, World Food Program.

(3) Government of Japan and the World Bank, Effectiveness in the West Bank and Gaza, June 2000, p.18.

(4) Government of Japan and the World Bank, Effectiveness in the West Bank and Gaza, June 2000, p.18.

a.. PA ministry of higher education [Italy's university scholarships; training of science & mathematics teachers]

a.. UNESCO [strengthening &improving primary & basic education]

a.. World Bank [support to the Palestinian education system]

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1 comment:

James Bradley said...

Dr. _________,

One comment in your (lengthy) response struck me as at least not the full story.

"The Zionist movement has never called for the expulsion of Israel's Arab citizens. Yet the books teach that Zionism calls for this "expulsion":"

Didn't Israel's current Minister of National Security in his campaign for the Israeli parliament call for just that?

James Bradley